How FICO Credit Scores Are Calculated
Since we live in an automated society, it's not surprising that your ability to repay your mortgage boils down to a single number.
Credit reporting agencies use your history of paying all types of loans to create this score.
Each of the three credit reporting agencies has its own formula for building your credit score. Fair Isaac and Cooriginally developed this score. .
Experian uses this model and calls its score FICO. Equifax's model, based on FICO, is called BEACON, while TransUnion, which also uses a slightly modified FICO, calls its score EMPIRICA. While each of the models considers a range of data available in your credit report, the differences aren't huge; each agency uses the following factors to build your credit score:
- Credit History - How many years have you had credit?
- Payment History - Do you pay your bills on time?
- Balances on your Credit Cards - How many accounts? How much do you owe on your accounts?
- Inquiries on Your Credit - How many times have you had your credit checked for a loan?
Each of these factors is assigned a value and a weight. The result is a single number: your credit score. Credit scores can be as low as 300 and as high as 800. Higher is better. Most home buyers have a score above 620.
Your score affects your interest rate
Did you know? FICO scores affect more than your ability to get a loan. They also affect your interest rate. Lenders give lower interest rates to individuals with higher scores.
Raising your FICO score
Unfortunately, there isn't a lot you can do to immediately improve your credit score. So called "credit repair" companies advertise quick fixes, but the FICO score is calculated from your lifelong credit history, so it's not possible to raise it significantly in the short term. (Of course you can and should appeal incorrect items on your credit report.)
Getting your credit score
In order to raise your score, you've got to obtain the reports that the agencies use to build it, and of course, you need the score itself. Fair Isaac, the company that invented the first FICO score, sells credit scores on its website: myFICO.com. It's inexpensive, fast, and easy to get your credit score along with credit reports from all three reporting agencies. Also available are information and online tools that can help you analyze what actions might have the greatest impact on your FICO score.
You can get a federally-mandated free credit report once a year from all three credit reporting agencies when you visit AnnualCreditReport.com. While this report does not include a free credit score, the cost to "upgrade" your report to include a credit score is very reasonable.
Now that you have all the facts, you'll be a more informed consumer and you'll be better positioned to obtain the right mortgage for you.
Curious about credit scores? Call us at (949) 486-3777.